Image Simulation and Assessment of the Colour and Spatial Capabilities of the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

Author(s)

Livio L. Tornabene, Frank P. Seelos, Antoine Pommerol, Nicholas Thomas, C. M. Caudill, Patricio Becerra, John C. Bridges, Shane Byrne, Marco Cardinale, Matthew Chojnacki, Susan J. Conway, Gabriele Cremonese, Colin M. Dundas, M. R. El-Maarry, Jennifer Fernando, Candice J. Hansen, Kayle Hansen, Tanya N. Harrison, Rachel Henson, Lucia Marinangeli, Alfred S. McEwen, Maurizio Pajola, Sarah S. Sutton, James J. Wray

Publication Year

2018

Journal

Space Science Reviews 214: 18

DOI

10.1007/s11214-017-0436-7

Description

This study aims to assess the spatial and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) colour/spectral capabilities of the 4-band Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) aboard the ExoMars 2016 Trace Grace Orbiter (TGO). The instrument response functions for the CaSSIS imager was used to resample spectral libraries, modelled spectra and to construct spectrally (i.e., in I/F space) and spatially consistent simulated CaSSIS image cubes of various key sites of interest and for ongoing scientific investigations on Mars. Coordinated datasets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) are ideal, and specifically used for simulating CaSSIS. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) provides colour information, while the Context Imager (CTX), and in a few cases the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), provides the complementary spatial information at the resampled CaSSIS unbinned/unsummed pixel resolution (4.6 m/pixel from a 400-km altitude). The methodology used herein employs a Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening algorithm to combine the ∼18–36 m/pixel CRISM-derived CaSSIS colours with I/F images primarily derived from oversampled CTX images. One hundred and eighty-one simulated CaSSIS 4-colour image cubes (at 18–36 m/pixel) were generated (including one of Phobos) based on CRISM data. From these, thirty-three “fully”-simulated image cubes of thirty unique locations on Mars (i.e., with 4 colour bands at 4.6 m/pixel) were made. All simulated image cubes were used to test both the colour capabilities of CaSSIS by producing standard colour RGB images, colour band ratio composites (CBRCs) and spectral parameters. Simulated CaSSIS CBRCs demonstrated that CaSSIS will be able to readily isolate signatures related to ferrous (Fe2+) iron- and ferric (Fe3+) iron-bearing deposits on the surface of Mars, ices and atmospheric phenomena. Despite the lower spatial resolution of CaSSIS when compared to HiRISE, the results of this work demonstrate that CaSSIS will not only compliment HiRISE-scale studies of various geological and seasonal phenomena, it will also enhance them by providing additional colour and geologic context through its wider and longer full-colour coverage (∼9.4×50 km), and its increased sensitivity to iron-bearing materials from its two IR bands (RED and NIR). In a few examples, subtle surface changes that were not easily detected by HiRISE were identified in the simulated CaSSIS images. This study also demonstrates the utility of the Gram-Schmidt spectral pan-sharpening technique to extend VNIR colour/spectral capabilities from a lower spatial resolution colour/spectral dataset to a single-band or panchromatic image greyscale image with higher resolution. These higher resolution colour products (simulated CaSSIS or otherwise) are useful as means to extend both geologic context and mapping of datasets with coarser spatial resolutions. The results of this study indicate that the TGO mission objectives, as well as the instrument-specific mission objectives, will be achievable with CaSSIS.

Files

Preview Filename Description
cassis_sim_c_0a600_x_007612_2043_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0a600_x_007612_2043_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0a600_x_007612_2043_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_0a600_x_007612_2043_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_0abcb_x_008347_2019_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0abcb_x_008347_2019_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0abcb_x_008347_2019_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_0abcb_x_008347_2019_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_0b1b5_x_005842_1964_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0b1b5_x_005842_1964_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0b1b5_x_005842_1964_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_0b1b5_x_005842_1964_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_0b6f1_x_008782_1999_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0b6f1_x_008782_1999_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0b6f1_x_008782_1999_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_0b6f1_x_008782_1999_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_0b012_x_000882_1999_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0b012_x_000882_1999_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0b012_x_000882_1999_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_0b012_x_000882_1999_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_1e5a2_x_022718_1439_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_1e5a2_x_022718_1439_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_1e5a2_x_022718_1439_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_1e5a2_x_022718_1439_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_03e12_x_002176_2024_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_03e12_x_002176_2024_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_03e12_x_002176_2024_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_03e12_x_002176_2024_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_04f9b_x_003092_0983_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_04f9b_x_003092_0983_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_04f9b_x_003092_0983_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_04f9b_x_003092_0983_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_05c5e_x_002387_1987_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_05c5e_x_002387_1987_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_05c5e_x_002387_1987_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_05c5e_x_002387_1987_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_07c34_x_005372_1514_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_07c34_x_005372_1514_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_07c34_x_005372_1514_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_07c34_x_005372_1514_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_09a16_x_007019_1978_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_09a16_x_007019_1978_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_09a16_x_007019_1978_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_09a16_x_007019_1978_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_09d44_x_007200_2002_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_09d44_x_007200_2002_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_09d44_x_007200_2002_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_09d44_x_007200_2002_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_10a4e_x_011691_1409_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_10a4e_x_011691_1409_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_10a4e_x_011691_1409_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_10a4e_x_011691_1409_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_12b01_x_013134_1611_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_12b01_x_013134_1611_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_12b01_x_013134_1611_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_12b01_x_013134_1611_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_13f9f_x_014081_1440_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_13f9f_x_014081_1440_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_13f9f_x_014081_1440_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_13f9f_x_014081_1440_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_18e24_h_017868_2440_corr_if_pa_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_18e24_h_017868_2440_corr_if_pa_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_18e24_h_017868_2440_corr_if_pa_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_18e24_h_017868_2440_corr_if_pa_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_039df_x_001981_1255_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_039df_x_001981_1255_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_039df_x_001981_1255_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_039df_x_001981_1255_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_060dd_x_001336_1560_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_060dd_x_001336_1560_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_060dd_x_001336_1560_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_060dd_x_001336_1560_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_064d9_x_045915_2012_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_064d9_x_045915_2012_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_064d9_x_045915_2012_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_064d9_x_045915_2012_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_094f6_x_006821_2045_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_094f6_x_006821_2045_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_094f6_x_006821_2045_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_094f6_x_006821_2045_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_110b7_x_011960_2004_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_110b7_x_011960_2004_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_110b7_x_011960_2004_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_110b7_x_011960_2004_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_168f3_x_016677_1653_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_168f3_x_016677_1653_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_168f3_x_016677_1653_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_168f3_x_016677_1653_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_0629d_x_004147_0985_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0629d_x_004147_0985_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0629d_x_004147_0985_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_0629d_x_004147_0985_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_0810d_x_009735_1977_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0810d_x_009735_1977_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_0810d_x_009735_1977_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_0810d_x_009735_1977_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_2367c_x_033757_1513_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_2367c_x_033757_1513_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_2367c_x_033757_1513_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_2367c_x_033757_1513_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_08236_x_005649_1696_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_08236_x_005649_1696_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_08236_x_005649_1696_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_08236_x_005649_1696_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_08573_h_005787_1475_corr_if_pa_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_08573_h_005787_1475_corr_if_pa_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_08573_h_005787_1475_corr_if_pa_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_08573_h_005787_1475_corr_if_pa_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_08649_x_005821_1585_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_08649_x_005821_1585_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_08649_x_005821_1585_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_08649_x_005821_1585_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_28346_h_030313_1755_corr_if_pa_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_28346_h_030313_1755_corr_if_pa_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_28346_h_030313_1755_corr_if_pa_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_28346_h_030313_1755_corr_if_pa_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

cassis_sim_c_28346_x_030313_1751_corr_if_nn_4band_inset_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; RGB image inset at full spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_28346_x_030313_1751_corr_if_nn_4band_composite.png

CaSSIS full simulation 3-panel composite; full scene RGB image at reduced spatial resolution.

cassis_sim_c_28346_x_030313_1751_corr_if_nn_4band.hdr

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product ENVI header.

cassis_sim_c_28346_x_030313_1751_corr_if_nn_4band

CaSSIS full simulation 4-band data product.

Uploaded by seelofp1 on Dec. 21, 2017, 4:31 p.m.
Last modified Feb. 16, 2018, 8:58 p.m.